Canon setting the AF and Drive modes

In the past, auto focus <AF> did the job, but I had to click and recompose numerously to get the focus at the location I wanted.

Now, I choose to practice using manual focus <MF>! In cases when autofocus fails with special subjects that are difficult to focus, I will be adept at getting the job done. One new thing I learned is that when you manually focus while pressing shutter button halfway, the focus indicator lights up when focus is achieved.

That being said, having a strong knowledge of the AF system seems to be essential in sports photography, where the subject moves at an unpredictable speed and rate; a fast and accurate focus lens may capture that once in a lifetime action. Thus, I made Anki flashcards on chapter 3 of eos 5d camera instruction manual, which you can download here > canon::AF and Drive Modes

Note: deck excludes topics in AF sensor, lenses and usable AF points groups A-K, customizing, and AF micro adjustment.

If I were to pick 1 diagram to practice muscle memories with, it will be this.

AI servo AF configuration tool

Canon, elinchrom cheat sheet

If you prefer a more effective and efficient way to recall information below, or plan to learn large amount of knowledge to apply during hands on practice, you may download the Anki flashcards deck I made > canon::basic

CHEAT SHEET 20191009

Full Fstop: 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22

4 Zone metering (evaluative) 

  1. Center weighted: always center of photo is given preference

  2. Spot: only 1-5% area; macro, portraits, closeups

  3. Partial: 10-15% larger area than spot

AutoFocus

  • 19 focus squares

  • 5 focus groups (clusters)

  • 3 AF modes

    • 1 shot: portraits, non-moving subject

    • AI servo: continuous focus, for moving subject

    • AI focus: camera decides if the subject is moving or non-moving

Light: sun, moon

Shutter: how long shutter is open

  • ¼ = slow speed, blurr motion

  • 1/4000 = fast speed, freeze motion

Fstop = aperture

  • F1.8 = low Fstop = high aperture = large Iris = lets more light in; use for blur brokeh, in dark environments

  • F32 = smaller aperture lets less light in; use for depth field focus background

  • Inc focal length = dec aperture

ISO

  • 100 = low = better, smooth but needs more light

  • 6400 = high = noise

Fast Lens: 

  • Nighttime, motion

  • high aperture allows for high shutter speed (faster) & low ISO

  • low aperture for landscape/ groups

Diffuser

  • White: scatters light to dec intensity

  • Black: absorbs light to inc shadow

Reflector: captures light & bounces it onto model

  • White

  • Silver

  • Gold

5 portrait light setup

  1. Remberant

  2. Split

  3. Broad

  4. paramount/ butterfly

  5. Loop 

Key light: above head

Fill light: same level as model 

1:1 flat ID; for large groups, family, engagement

2:1 fill light 1 Fstop lower than key light

  • Ex: key light f11; fill light = f8

  • For portraits, fashion full lengths

3:1 key light (f11); fill f5.6; for all portraits

4:1 for men, harsh shadows

5:1 makes thin lighting

Elinchrom Full: 1/1, 1/2 , 1/4 , 1/8 , 1/16 

Power: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

F5.6 = P2

F16 = P5

Canon shutter speed = 1/160 to 1/125

  • White balance: flash

  • ISO 100, 200

  1. Low key: black, gray. Second fill light opposite to key light

  2. Mid key: b/w

  3. High key: background is white. Fill light behind model facing wall, 2stops higher than key light

Reference:

  1. https://www.usa.canon.com/internet/portal/us/home/support/camera-user-manual

  2. https://www.elinchrom.com/support_downloads.php

  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2bhE5zDYDG0&t=234s

  4. https://www.slrlounge.com/10-reasons-every-photographer-should-own-a-5-in-1-reflector-our-recommendations/

  5. https://apps.ankiweb.net/index.html

History of Psychiatry

Intro: What are the pros and cons of Psychology and Psychiatry? How can we integrate both models into one?

Depression, one of the leading cause of blah blah blah, dates back to ancient Egypt 1550 BCE. However, the new psychopharmacology is a very young discovery.  History has proven that we humans, regardless of intelligence, wealth, power, are prone to make mistakes that have drastic consequences on society for years to come. For example, look into the Salem witch trials in 1724, the discovery and treatment of Drapetomia (disease causing negros to run away) & Dysaethesia Aethiopica in 1851, the development of lobotomy that won Nobel Prize in 1949, and DSM’s declassification of Homosexuality in 1973, as well as Gender identity disorder in 1980. 

Without further ado, here is the timeline and the key players.

1550 BCE - The Ebers papyrus, one of the most important medical papyri of ancient Egypt, briefly mentioned clinical depression.[1]

4th century BCE - Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that physiological abnormalities may be the root of mental disorders.

280 BCE - Greek physician and philosopher Herophilus studied the nervous system and distinguished between sensory nerves and motor nerves.

250 BCE - Greek anatomist Erasistratus studied the brain and distinguished between the cerebrum and cerebellum.

1656 - King Louis XIV of France founded Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris for prostitutes and the mentally defective.

1724 - After being plagued with guilt over the Salem Witch Trials, influential New England Puritan minister Cotton Mather broke with superstition by advancing physical explanations for mental illnesses over demonic explanations.

1758 - English physician William Battie published Treatise on Madness, calling for treatments to be utilized on rich and poor mental patients alike in asylums, helping make psychiatry a respectable profession.

1793 - French physician Philippe Pinel was appointed to Bicêtre Hospital in south Paris, ordering chains removed from mental patients, and founding Moral Treatment. In 1809 he published the first description of dementia praecox (schizophrenia).

1796 - The York Retreat in England was founded by Quakers, becoming known for humane treatment and serving as a model.

1808 - german physician Johann Christian Reil coined term Psychiatry

1812 - American physician Benjamin Rush became one of the earliest advocates of humane treatment for the mentally ill with the publication of Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind,  the first American textbook on psychiatry.

1844 - Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII), the forerunner of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1851 - Louisiana physician Dr. Samuel Cartwright - Drapetomia (disease causing negros to run away) Dysaethesia Aethiopica (theory for cause of lazinesss among slaves); today both are exmaples of scientific racim.

1895 - sigmund freud…

1899 - nov 4 Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams.

1900 - russian neurologist Vladimir Behhterev

1901 - German psych Alois Alzheimer

1902 - Swiss born psychiatrist Adolf Meyer

1906 - Russian psych Ivan pavlov - conditioning

1908 - Swiss psych Paul Eugen Bleuler - Schizophrenia term

1909 - freud visited clark university, winning over US psych establishment

1910 - freud founded international psychoanalytical association with carl jung as first president, Otto Rank as first secretary. 

1913 - 

1914 - Feud published On Narcissism: an introduction

1917 - Freud published introduction to Psychoanalysis, & Mourning and Melancholia

1921 - Freud published Group Psychology & analysis of the Ego

1923 - German pharmacologist Otto Loewi & english neuroscientist Sir Henry Dale discovered Acetylcholine - novel prize

1924 - german neuropsychiatrist Hans Berger - EEG

1927 - Austrian psychiatrist Manfred Sakel - insulin shock therapy for tx psychosis - discontinued in 1970s.

1938 - italian neurologist Ugo Cerletti & italian psych Dr. Lucio Bini discovered Electroconvulsive therapy

1942 - swiss psych Ludwig Binswanger - existential therapy 

1944 - Ritalin 

1948 - Lithium Carbonate - John Cade

1949 - portuguese neurologist Antonio Moniz - lobotomy nobel prize


Era of psychopharmacology

1950 - world psychiatric association

1952 -  APA published first DSMl revised in 1968, 1994, 2000, 2013

1953 - MAOI Iproniazid discovered

1953 - russian physiologist Nathaniel Kleitman of U chicago discovered REM, founding sleep research

1954 - All india institute of mental health founded, becoming the national institute of mental health & neuroscience in 1974 at Bangalore

1957 - Arvid Carlsson - dopamine; first TCA imipramine

1958 - Aaron B Lerner - melatonin regulates circadian rhythm

1960 - aaron T. Beck - cognitive therapy

1960 - first benzo, chlordiazepoxide 

1961 - psych professor thomas Szasz published Myth of mental illness

1963 - John F Kennedy introduced legislation delegating National institute of mental health to administer community mental health centers for those being discharged from psych hospitals

1970 - FDA approved Lithium for acute mania. 

1973 - APA declasiffied homosexuality as a mental disorder

1980 - transgender people officially classified by APA as having “gender identity disorder”

1983 - european psychiatric association

1988 - fluoxetine (prozac) SSRI. American Neuropsychiatric Association founded

1990 - Dr. Seiji Ogawa - blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) in MRI

1994 - leptin!

1996 - Bill Clinton signed Mental Health Parity Act, requiring psychiatric conditions to be considered equal to any other medical or surgical illness by health insurance providers. 2008 George W. Bush signed an amended version

2002 - european brain counsel founded.  Japan changed mind split disease to integration disorder to reduce stigma. Name change inc percentage of patients who were informed of diagnosis from 37& to 70% over 3 yrs.

2012 - 

2013 - DSM-5 published by APA, eliminated gender identity disorder - stigmatizing instead of referring gender dysphoria which focused on distress caused by gender identity

we shall conclude this blog entry with an excerpt from TedTalk by Andrew Solomon:

The opposite of depression is not happiness, but vitality. Anxiety is the feeling all the time, if you have if you’re walking and slip or trip and the ground is rushing up at you, but instead of lasting half a second, it lasted for 6 months. Its sensation of being afraid all the time, but not knowing what it is that you are afraid of. Is depression a chemical problem or psychological problem? Does it need a chemical cure or a philosophical cure? I do not know. Maybe we are not advanced enough in either areas for it to explain things fully, the chemical and psychological cure both have a role to play. Depression is something that was braided deeply into us that there was no separating it from human character and personality. The treatments we have for depression are appalling, they are not effective, extremely costly, carry innumerable side effects, they are a disaster. But I’m so grateful to be living now and not 50 years ago, when there were almost no treatment. I hope that 50 years from now, people will hear about my treatments and be appalled that anyone endured such primitive science. Depression is flaw in love.…But the truth lies. Delusional perspectives….“Well, that’s west african and we’re in east africa, and our rituals are in some ways very different, but we do have some rituals that we have in common with what you are describing….We’ve had alot of trouble with Western mental health workers, especially the ones who came right after the genocide… they would do this bizarre thing, they didn’t take people out in the sunshine where you begin to feel better. They didn’t include drumming or music to get people’s blood going, they didn’t involve the whole community. They didn’t externalize depression as an invasive spirit. Instead what they did was they took people one at a time into dingy little rooms, and had them talk for an hour about bad things that had happened to them.” 

Bibliography

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714299/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_psychiatry

https://www.ted.com/talks/andrew_solomon_depression_the_secret_we_share?language=en