Intro: What are the pros and cons of Psychology and Psychiatry? How can we integrate both models into one?
Depression, one of the leading cause of blah blah blah, dates back to ancient Egypt 1550 BCE. However, the new psychopharmacology is a very young discovery. History has proven that we humans, regardless of intelligence, wealth, power, are prone to make mistakes that have drastic consequences on society for years to come. For example, look into the Salem witch trials in 1724, the discovery and treatment of Drapetomia (disease causing negros to run away) & Dysaethesia Aethiopica in 1851, the development of lobotomy that won Nobel Prize in 1949, and DSM’s declassification of Homosexuality in 1973, as well as Gender identity disorder in 1980.
Without further ado, here is the timeline and the key players.
1550 BCE - The Ebers papyrus, one of the most important medical papyri of ancient Egypt, briefly mentioned clinical depression.
4th century BCE - Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that physiological abnormalities may be the root of mental disorders.
280 BCE - Greek physician and philosopher Herophilus studied the nervous system and distinguished between sensory nerves and motor nerves.
250 BCE - Greek anatomist Erasistratus studied the brain and distinguished between the cerebrum and cerebellum.
1656 - King Louis XIV of France founded Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris for prostitutes and the mentally defective.
1724 - After being plagued with guilt over the Salem Witch Trials, influential New England Puritan minister Cotton Mather broke with superstition by advancing physical explanations for mental illnesses over demonic explanations.
1758 - English physician William Battie published Treatise on Madness, calling for treatments to be utilized on rich and poor mental patients alike in asylums, helping make psychiatry a respectable profession.
1793 - French physician Philippe Pinel was appointed to Bicêtre Hospital in south Paris, ordering chains removed from mental patients, and founding Moral Treatment. In 1809 he published the first description of dementia praecox (schizophrenia).
1796 - The York Retreat in England was founded by Quakers, becoming known for humane treatment and serving as a model.
1808 - german physician Johann Christian Reil coined term Psychiatry
1812 - American physician Benjamin Rush became one of the earliest advocates of humane treatment for the mentally ill with the publication of Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind, the first American textbook on psychiatry.
1844 - Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII), the forerunner of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1851 - Louisiana physician Dr. Samuel Cartwright - Drapetomia (disease causing negros to run away) Dysaethesia Aethiopica (theory for cause of lazinesss among slaves); today both are exmaples of scientific racim.
1895 - sigmund freud…
1899 - nov 4 Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams.
1900 - russian neurologist Vladimir Behhterev
1901 - German psych Alois Alzheimer
1902 - Swiss born psychiatrist Adolf Meyer
1906 - Russian psych Ivan pavlov - conditioning
1908 - Swiss psych Paul Eugen Bleuler - Schizophrenia term
1909 - freud visited clark university, winning over US psych establishment
1910 - freud founded international psychoanalytical association with carl jung as first president, Otto Rank as first secretary.
1914 - Feud published On Narcissism: an introduction
1917 - Freud published introduction to Psychoanalysis, & Mourning and Melancholia
1921 - Freud published Group Psychology & analysis of the Ego
1923 - German pharmacologist Otto Loewi & english neuroscientist Sir Henry Dale discovered Acetylcholine - novel prize
1924 - german neuropsychiatrist Hans Berger - EEG
1927 - Austrian psychiatrist Manfred Sakel - insulin shock therapy for tx psychosis - discontinued in 1970s.
1938 - italian neurologist Ugo Cerletti & italian psych Dr. Lucio Bini discovered Electroconvulsive therapy
1942 - swiss psych Ludwig Binswanger - existential therapy
1944 - Ritalin
1948 - Lithium Carbonate - John Cade
1949 - portuguese neurologist Antonio Moniz - lobotomy nobel prize
Era of psychopharmacology
1950 - world psychiatric association
1952 - APA published first DSMl revised in 1968, 1994, 2000, 2013
1953 - MAOI Iproniazid discovered
1953 - russian physiologist Nathaniel Kleitman of U chicago discovered REM, founding sleep research
1954 - All india institute of mental health founded, becoming the national institute of mental health & neuroscience in 1974 at Bangalore
1957 - Arvid Carlsson - dopamine; first TCA imipramine
1958 - Aaron B Lerner - melatonin regulates circadian rhythm
1960 - aaron T. Beck - cognitive therapy
1960 - first benzo, chlordiazepoxide
1961 - psych professor thomas Szasz published Myth of mental illness
1963 - John F Kennedy introduced legislation delegating National institute of mental health to administer community mental health centers for those being discharged from psych hospitals
1970 - FDA approved Lithium for acute mania.
1973 - APA declasiffied homosexuality as a mental disorder
1980 - transgender people officially classified by APA as having “gender identity disorder”
1983 - european psychiatric association
1988 - fluoxetine (prozac) SSRI. American Neuropsychiatric Association founded
1990 - Dr. Seiji Ogawa - blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) in MRI
1994 - leptin!
1996 - Bill Clinton signed Mental Health Parity Act, requiring psychiatric conditions to be considered equal to any other medical or surgical illness by health insurance providers. 2008 George W. Bush signed an amended version
2002 - european brain counsel founded. Japan changed mind split disease to integration disorder to reduce stigma. Name change inc percentage of patients who were informed of diagnosis from 37& to 70% over 3 yrs.
2013 - DSM-5 published by APA, eliminated gender identity disorder - stigmatizing instead of referring gender dysphoria which focused on distress caused by gender identity
we shall conclude this blog entry with an excerpt from TedTalk by Andrew Solomon:
The opposite of depression is not happiness, but vitality. Anxiety is the feeling all the time, if you have if you’re walking and slip or trip and the ground is rushing up at you, but instead of lasting half a second, it lasted for 6 months. Its sensation of being afraid all the time, but not knowing what it is that you are afraid of. Is depression a chemical problem or psychological problem? Does it need a chemical cure or a philosophical cure? I do not know. Maybe we are not advanced enough in either areas for it to explain things fully, the chemical and psychological cure both have a role to play. Depression is something that was braided deeply into us that there was no separating it from human character and personality. The treatments we have for depression are appalling, they are not effective, extremely costly, carry innumerable side effects, they are a disaster. But I’m so grateful to be living now and not 50 years ago, when there were almost no treatment. I hope that 50 years from now, people will hear about my treatments and be appalled that anyone endured such primitive science. Depression is flaw in love.…But the truth lies. Delusional perspectives….“Well, that’s west african and we’re in east africa, and our rituals are in some ways very different, but we do have some rituals that we have in common with what you are describing….We’ve had alot of trouble with Western mental health workers, especially the ones who came right after the genocide… they would do this bizarre thing, they didn’t take people out in the sunshine where you begin to feel better. They didn’t include drumming or music to get people’s blood going, they didn’t involve the whole community. They didn’t externalize depression as an invasive spirit. Instead what they did was they took people one at a time into dingy little rooms, and had them talk for an hour about bad things that had happened to them.”